Bilingual classrooms

6C) Reading, writing, listening, and speaking in both languages

Integrate reading, writing, listening, and speaking in both languages to develop bilingualism and biliteracy.

Website Article: Early Literacy Instruction in Spanish

This article is a research overview for teachers about the early literacy development of Spanish-speaking children. The content covers stages of literacy development, explicitly notes the differences in reading instruction between English and Spanish, and includes some example literacy strategies and tips for parents.
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Website: Primero Lee

This is a Spanish language website with a variety of literacy content for children, including reading and phonics games and read-aloud stories.
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Website: SALSA Spanish Language Series

This is a collection of 30 episodes of puppet-based Spanish language programming for children. Each episode is roughly 20 minutes long and comes with supporting materials and vocabulary lists.
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Website: Árbol ABC

This is a Spanish language website of digital learning games for children 3-10 years old. Many games are free and support both literacy and math skills.
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Resource Guide: Barrier Games

This is a list of resources for barrier games to use in the classroom. These games are designed to encourage oral language practice since one student is given information that another student needs.
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Digital Book: Developing Oral Language with Barrier Games

Barrier games are designed to promote oral language since one student is given information that another partner student needs. The lesson design encourages students to ask information of one another. This resource provides many example barrier games.
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Blog: Should Multimodalities be Incorporated into Testing and Assessment?

This blog introduces research that challenges the idea of written text as the mode of communication for comprehending written language and assessing Multilingual Learners. Suggestions for alternative assessment, attending to all domains of English, are offered.
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Webinar: Promoting Oracy in Spanish Language / El desarollo de la oralidad en español (Spanish)

This webinar given in Spanish focuses on developing oracy for Multilingual Learners. The research-based considerations for lesson design and example activities are introduced to support the development of oral expression, fluency, and comprehension during instruction.
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Blog: 5 Steps for Ensuring That Your Dual Language Program Is Still A Strong, Equity-Based Dual Language Program

This blog post introduces guiding principles for a successful dual immersion program. The author argues that successful programs are grounded in equity-based decisions, such as providing Multilingual Learners access to content learning in their native language.
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Strategy Overview: Translanguaging

This resource offers guidelines on the various ways teachers can implement translanguaging in the classroom.
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Blog: The Potential of Wordless Picture Books with English Learners

Wordless picture books can be "read" in many different ways with Multilingual Learners, both at home or in the classroom, to provide instruction on book concepts, to practice oral language fluency, and make connections between multiple languages.
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Website: Teacher Interactions and Strategies to Support Listening for Dual Language Learners

This resource provides a list of strategies teachers can use to support Multilingual Learners’ listening skills, such as using visual cues and gestures to accompany speech. Teachers can integrate reading, writing, listening, and speaking in both languages. Teachers can also introduce key vocabulary in the home language prior to teaching in English.
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App: Ready DLL

This mobile app is a comprehensive resource that teachers can use to support Multilingual Learners. It includes specific guidance on including labels and other functional print in both languages, engaging in interactive reading, and integrating reading, writing, listening, and speaking in multiple languages. The app also helps teachers learn key words and phrases in children’s home languages (Spanish, Arabic, Mandarin, and Haitian Creole), and provides links to articles, tip sheets, videos, and webinars.
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Website Article: Reading 101 for English Learners

This article names specific components of literacy instruction that can be more challenging for Multilingual Learners. Instructional strategies for teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and reading comprehension are shared.
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Video: Bilingualism Through the Eyes of a Student

Students share their ideas about the benefits of being bilingual. They explain why speaking two languages is important and a source of pride.
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Tip Sheet: Communication with Parents/Comunicación con los padres

This bilingual (Spanish) document explains to parents the benefits of speaking a home language. Advice is shared on how to develop oral home language proficiency and provide high-quality and extended talk opportunities for children.
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Video: Complex Oral Language

This video emphasizes the importance of immersing Multilingual Learners in an environment with high-quality and extended talk in each language. Teachers can ask questions to elicit complex oral language from children.
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Template: Thinking about Home Language Support

This resource helps teachers and administrators think about the staff and/or community members that serve as language models for Multilingual Learners. Language models can integrate the home language(s) and English and join classroom activities to speak and read in children’s home languages.
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Video: Supporting Home Language through Language Models

This video discusses how "language models" can support Multilingual Learners by integrating English and the home language(s) into classroom activities and conversations throughout the day. Parents and other speakers of children’s home languages can join classroom activities to support children’s development of multiple languages. Language models can provide high-quality and extended talk in each language, including a variety of questions to elicit talk from children.
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