Literacy development

5A) Phonological awareness

Conduct phonological awareness activities that explicitly teach children to hear individual segments of sounds in words, such as using manipulatives to represent sound units (relevant for letter-based writing systems only).

Stragegy Overview: El dictado

"El dictado" is a strategy that a teacher can use in Spanish or English to model and structure language practice for students in spelling, grammar, and fluency. This overview includes an example sequence for instruction, a rubric for assessment, and tips for differentiating the activity.
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Blog: Dictado with Dr. Mónica Lara & John Seidlitz

This blog post introduces the Dictado strategy and shares tips and pitfalls for teachers who hope to implement this strategy with Multilingual Learners.
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Website Article: 8 Strategies for Preschool ELLs’ Language and Literacy Development

This resource provides a list of research-based strategies to support Multilingual Learners in their language and literacy skills. Strategies include: providing systematic instruction, providing children with opportunities to use language with adults and peers, and designing instruction that integrates all early literacy skills.
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Blog: Connecting the Ingredients of Language and Literacy for DLLs

This resource discusses the importance of supporting Multilingual Learners’ oral language and literacy skills in an integrated way, rather than focusing on one skill alone.
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Webinar: Focus on Phonological Awareness

This webinar focuses on phonological awareness and is part of the Planned Language Approach series by Head Start: ECLKC. The presenters explain phonological awareness and how to promote these skills for all children in early childhood programs.
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Guide: Planned Language Approach – Phonological Awareness

This guide discusses the meaning of phonological awareness and how it typically develops in children from birth to age five. This guide also discusses effective practices that support young children’s phonological awareness skills and provides examples of activities that teachers can use in their classrooms.
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Website Article: What Research Says About Small Group Intervention

This article summarizes research and discussed how to use assessment to inform strategic groupings for Multilingual Learners, particularly for reading instruction.
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Strategy Overview: Decodable Readers Protocols

This document discusses the varied ways in which teachers can use decodable texts with Multilingual Learners, to offer more or less support. These texts are important for students to practice sound and spelling patterns, high-frequency words, and phonics lessons.
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Online Module: Systematic and Explicit Instruction to Develop Students’ Phonemic Awareness

Teachers can review phonemic awareness concepts and instructional ideas that are specific to Multilingual Learners. This page is linked to a larger set of online learning modules on other K-3rd literacy concepts for diverse learners.
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Website Article: Reading 101 for English Learners

This article names specific components of literacy instruction that can be more challenging for Multilingual Learners. Instructional strategies for teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and reading comprehension are shared.
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Strategy Overview: The Dictado

The Dictado is a routine in which the teacher dictates a series of phrases or sentences, and the teacher and students collaboratively correct them. The Dictado serves to teach and reinforce basic writing skills within each language, and to highlight cross-language transfer.
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